A biomaterial scaffold is one of the key factors for successful tissue engineering. Nanofiber tissue engineering materials made from biopolymers, such as PCA, PLA or collagen, with the appropriate mechanical and structural properties are used to prepare scaffolds which are suitable for implanting by different types of cells. Electrospun matrices show a controlled and reproducible nanofibrous architecture with a high surface-to-volume ratio and mimicking the natural extracellular matrix, which promotes cell adhesion and spreading in a three-dimensional shape.
In recent years reasercher show an increasing trend toward the approach of implanting scaffolds with controlled release of biomolecules, known as “bioactive scaffolds”. Various biomolecules can be incorporated within tissue-engineered scaffolds to enhance their functional properties for biomedical applications: the most frequently used biomolecules are proteins (e.g., growth factors or cytokines) and growth factor coding genes. Due to the possibility of ultrathin fiber diameters, electrospun fibrous matrices can have a large specific surface area, which enables effective delivery of biomolecules.
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